Prostate cancer is one of the leading cancers among men in India and is also called as prostatic carcinoma. It occurrence among the population has been see on the increase in the last decade and it is expected to double by 2020. Prostate cancer forms in the cells of the prostate.
Though several types of cells are found in prostate, almost all prostate cancers develop from glandular cells (adenocarcinomas). Prostate cancer is usually a very slow growing cancer and most patients do not have significant symptoms until the cancer reaches an advanced stage. Most men with prostate cancer die of other unrelated causes, and many never know that they have the disease. But once prostate cancer begins to grow quickly or spreads outside the prostate, it is dangerous.
Both exposure (environmental or occupational) to particular agents & an individual’s susceptibility to these agents are thought to contribute to one’s risk of developing prostate cancer
|Age: Risk of prostate cancer increases with age.|
|Family history: Prostate cancer seems to run in families which suggest a genetic or inherited factor involved in its causation. A family history of prostate cancer increases your risk of getting it|
|Diet - a diet of excessive calcium through dietary foods or supplements is known to increase risk to prostate cancer|
The following are the common symptoms of prostate cancer
|Difficulty in urination|
|Urgency to pass urine|
|Passing urine more often than usual, especially at night|
|Decreased force in the urine stream|
|Not having a feeling of emptied bladder|
|Discomfort in the pelvic area|
|Loss of bladder or bowel control due to cancer growth pressing the spinal cord|
|Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet|
These symptoms can be caused by cancerous as well as non-cancerous prostatic conditions. However, if you feel any of such symptoms consult your doctor.
|Digital rectal exam (DRE)|
|Testing the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood sample|
If the results of the screening tests are abnormal , further tests can be performed to check for cancer.
|Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)||A small lubricated probe is placed in the rectum to provide images of prostate on a computer screen. It is also used to measure the size of prostate and to obtain guided biopsy of the prostate , if needed|
|Prostate Biospy||A small tissue sample is taken for testing in the lab and confirm presence of cancerous cells|
|Imaging Tests||Imaging tests like MRI, PET/CT and Bone Scans are used to look for spread of spread of prostate cancer|
As with other cancers, the actual decision to treat is driven by a combination of clinical and psychological factors, including:
|Stage of Disease||Common Treatment Approach|
|Stage I and II (Treating Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer)||
|Stage III and IV (Treating metastatic or Advanced Prostate Cancer)||
|Treatment Approach||Side Effects|
|Surgery (Radical Prostatovesiculectomy)||
|Hormone Deprivation Therapy and Anti-Androgens||
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